LAKE CHERVONOJE

A view on the lakeshore

Photo.
Photo: Res.Lab.Limnol., Belarus State Univ.


A. LOCATION


B. DESCRIPTION

    Lake Chervonoje is one of the largest lakes in Belarus Republic. It is located in the watershed of the River Pripiat, a right-side tributary of the River Dnepr that drains into the Black Sea. The lake water originates partly from the seepage of groundwater in the enormous marshy lowland of Polesie.
    Surface runoff from the catchment area is partially regulated by diking marsh systems and peat bogs for drainage or moisture supply. Though the shoreline is embanked, natural shores are low being sandy and peaty on the southern side of the lake. The lake water level has now been lowered by 0.4 m in comparison with the former natural level, and fluctuates with an annual range of 0.3 0.4 m. Deeper lake bottom is covered by siliceous ooze rich in decaying organic matter. An intensive sediment re-suspension due to wind force takes place in the ice-free period. Transparency of the lake water becomes as small as 0.1 m in summer. Dissolved oxygen in the lake water is exhausted at the end of the freezing period. Total mineral contents amount to 200 240 mg l-1, and the level of organic matter content is also high.
    Eighteen species of macrophytes have been recorded in the lake, and 24% of its surface area are covered by their growth. There are 288 taxa of phytoplankton, their maximum biomass reaching 80 g m-3. The species number and summer biomass of zooplankton amounts to 197 and 0.8 g m-3, while those of zoobenthos to 107 and 22 g m-2, respectively.
    L. Chervonoje is intensively used. The lake water is pumped up freely throughout the year for fish farming. Drainage water from diked marshes and peat plots for agricultural uses is discharged directly into the lake from pumping stations. The extraction of lake sediments for industrial uses is estimated at 100,000 t yr-1. Fish fingerlings, particularly of Carassius auratus, are released into the lake every year, and the annual fish production amounts to 15 kg ha-1. There are villages such as Puchovichi, Liachovichi, etc. along the lakeshore (1).

C. PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS (2)

    Surface area [km2] 40
    Volume [km3] 0.046
    Maximum depth [m] 4.5
    Mean depth [m] 1.2
    Water level Regulated
    Normal range of annual water level fluctuation [m] 0.4
    Length of shoreline [km] 30.8
    Residence time [yr] 0.6
    Catchment area [km2] 353

D. PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES

D1 GEOGRAPHICAL (1)

    Fig. EUR-50-1
    Bathymetric map, June 1990 (water level mark 135.7 m)[m].

D2 CLIMATIC
    Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Ann.
    Mean temp. [deg C] -6.1 -5.1 -0.5 7.4 13.3 17.1 18.6 16.9 12.5 6.7 1.4 -2.7 6.6
    Precipitation [mm] 43 34 34 40 59 84 81 78 53 48 53 49 656
    Station 1, 1985-1989
    Depth [m] Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    0 - - - 7.8 15.9 19.1 21.1 19.6 13.9 7.0 - -

E. LAKE WATER QUALITY (3)

E1 TRANSPARENCY
    Station 1, 1990
    Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    - - - 1.3 - 0.2 0.4 - - - - -
E2 pH
    Station , 1985-1989
    Depth [m] Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    1 - - 7.3 7.4 7.8 - - - 7.7 - 7.1 -
E3 SS [mg l-1]
    Station 1, 1985-1989
    Depth [m] Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    0 - - 14.4 12.5 10.7 - - - 39.8 - 20.0 -
E4 DO [mg l-1]
    Station 1, 1985-1989
    Depth [m] Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    1 - - 5.3 10.3 9.7 - - - 7.3 - 9.4 -
E5 COD [mg l-1]
    Determined by K2Cr2O7 method.
    pcStation 1, 1985-1989
    Depth [m] Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    1 - - 33.7 37.9 36.6 - - - 33.5 - 26.7 -
E7 NITROGEN CONCENTRATION
    Station 1, Average of 1986, 1987 and 1989
    Depth [m] Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    1 - - 0.53 0.40 1.11 - - - 1.00 - 0.41 -
E8 PHOSPHORUS CONCENTRATION
    Station 1, 1986-1989
    Depth [m] Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    1 - - 2.067 0.467 0.796 - - - 0.216 - 1.288 -
E10 PAST TRENDS
    Depth [m] 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975
    1 7.0 7.0 7.3 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.2 - 7.4 7.4 7.7
    Depth [m] 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986
    1 7.7 7.7 7.4 7.0 7.6 7.5 7.4 7.9 7.4 7.4 7.4
    Depth [m] 1987 1988 1989 1990
    1 7.4 7.7 7.7 7.7
    Depth [m] 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986
    1 8.9 14.9 21.3 20.3 12.1 9.3 11.4 17.8 14.6 15.2 23.1
    Depth [m] 1987 1988 1989
    1 16.8 13.2 20.8
    Depth [m] 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983
    1 7.8 9.5 9.6 9.0 9.6 9.8 8.7 8.9 8.5 8.3 12.3
    Depth [m] 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
    1 12.1 9.0 8.8 6.9 7.5 8.8
    Depth [m] 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975
    1 100.8 123.4 99.8 73.8 76.5 63.4 88.1 - 86.9 61.2 68.0
    Depth [m] 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986
    1 77.7 43.7 - 26.9 42.2 42.1 47.8 49.6 43.8 38.6 31.8
    Depth [m] 1987 1988 1989
    1 42.6 27.7 31.7
    Depth [m] 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975
    1 0.46 1.74 1.39 1.25 0.93 1.30 0.85 - 0.68 0.93 2.06
    Depth [m] 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986
    1 0.18 0.97 0.69 0.82 0.75 0.55 0.31 0.19 - - 0.81
    Depth [m] 1987 1988 1989
    1 0.98 0.14 0.57
    Depth [m] 965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975
    1 0.036 0.047 0.065 0.023 0.038 0.047 0.036 - 0.050 0.014 0.024
    Depth [m] 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986
    1 0.065 0.041 0.034 0.025 0.062 0.035 - - - 0.040 -
    Depth [m] 1987 1988 1989
    1 0.078 0.086 0.091

F. BIOLOGICAL FEATURES (1, 2)

F1 FLORA F2 FAUNA F3 PRIMARY PRODUCTION RATE [mg C l-1 day 1]
    Net primary production: 0.97
    Respiration: 0.44
    Gross primary production: 1.41
F4 BIOMASS
    Plankton Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    P*1 - - - 11.77 - 66.57 80.62 - - - - -
    Z*2 - - - 1.16 - 0.77 0.83 - - - - -
    Z*3 - - - 11.42 - 7.18 21.49 - - - - -
    *1 Phytoplankton. *2 Zooplankton. *3 Zoobenthos.
F5 FISHERY PRODUCTS F6 PAST TRENDS
    1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989
    Fish catch 73 164 187 100 150 93 146 157 62
    Fishery production 18.3 41.4 48.2 29.6 39.2 24.0 37.9 40.1 15.7
    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    1949 - - - - - - - 600.0 - - - -
    1962 - - - - 225.5 43.4 - - - - - -
    1966 - - - - - 159.1 - - - - - -
    1968 - - 2.7 - - 103.5 - 63.4 - - - -
    1974 - - 0.7 - - - - - - - - -
    1978 - 0.1 0.1 13.3 11.4 28.4 23.5 232.5 - 19.1 - -
    1985 - - - - - - 26.7 - - - - -
    1990 - - - 11.7 - 66.6 80.6 - - - - -
    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    1962 - - 3.14 - 4.23 - 4.33 3.27 2.25 - - -
    1974 - - 0.03 - - - - - - - - -
    1978 - 0.7 0.5 0.6 2.9 12.8 2.2 1.8 - 2.2 3.2 -
    1979 0.4 0.5 - - - - - - - - - -
    1985 - - - - - - 0.16 - - - - -
    1990 - - - 1.16 - 0.77 0.83 - - - - -
    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
    1949 - - - - - - - 33.51 - - - -
    1954 - - 19.86 - - - - 11.77 - - - -
    1962 - - 0.55 - 0.63 - 0.37 6.05 32.60 - - -
    1966 - - - - - - 0.0 - 0.0 - - -
    1968 - - 0.0 - - 0.57 - 1.67 - - - -
    1974 - - 2.81 - - - - - - - - -
    1978 - 9.4 8.0 11.8 10.9 10.0 8.27 3.8 - 13.3 8.1 -
    1979 16.8 19.0 - - - 4.5 - 15.0 - - - -
    1985 - - - - - - 9.34 - - - - -
    1990 - - - 11.42 - 7.18 21.49 - - - - -

G. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS (2)

G1 LAND USE IN THE CATCHMENT AREA (1990)
    Area [km 2] [%]
    Natural landscape
    - Woody vegetation 167.9 47.6
    - Grassland vegetation 44.4 12.6
    - Swamp 7.5 2.1
    - Others 78.6 22.3
    Agricultural land 31.4 8.9
    - Crop field 20.1 5.7
    - Pasture 11.3 3.2
    Residential area
    Others 22.9 6.5
    Total 352.7 100.0

H. LAKE UTILIZATION

H1 LAKE UTILIZATION
    Source of water, fisheries, extraction of bottom sediments (ooze), and water reservoir for diked marsh systems.
H2 THE LAKE AS WATER RESOURCE (3) (1987)
    Use rate [m3 day 1]
    Water supply for fish farms 25

I. DETERIORATION OF LAKE ENVIRONMENTS AND HAZARDS

I1 ENHANCED SILTATION I2 TOXIC CONTAMINATION
    Name of contaminant Range of concentrations Main sources in water [mg l-1]
    Oil products 0.06-0.20
    Cu 0.003-0.012 Agricultural activity
    Ni 0.003-0.004
    Phenols 0.0-0.008

    Fig. EUR-50-2
    Past trend of Cu and Ni concentration [mg l-1](2).

    Fig. EUR-50-3
    Past trend of phenols concentration [mg l-1](2).

    Fig. EUR-50-4
    Past trend of oil products [mg l-1](2).

I3 EUTROPHICATION I4 ACIDIFICATION

J. WASTEWATER TREATMENTS

J1 GENERATION OF POLLUTANTS IN THE CATCHMENT AREA
    (f) Severe pollution with poor control of agricultural wastewater.
J2 APPROXIMATE PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF POLLUTANT LOADS (4) (1989)
    [%]
    Non-point sources
    - Agricultural 13
    - Natural 9
    Point sources
    - Peat mining 55
    - Extraction of bottom ooze 23
    Total 100

L. DEVELOPMENT PLANS (2)

    Rates of the construction of diked marsh systems in the catchment area: 34 km2 in 1983, 29 km2 in 1987 and 6 km2 in 1989.

M. LEGISLATIVE AND INSTITUTIONAL MEASURES FOR UPGRADING LAKE ENVIRONMENTS

M1 NATIONAL AND LOCAL LAWS CONCERNED M2 INSTITUTIONAL MEASURES
  1. Ecological Union of Belarus
M3 RESEARCH INSTITUTES ENGAGED IN THE LAKE ENVIRONMENT STUDIES
  1. Branch Scientific-Research Laboratory of Limnology, Belarus State University, Minsk
  2. Belarus Board of Hydrometeorology and Environmental Control
  3. Belarus Scientific-Research and Design Institute of Fisheries
  4. Institute of Problems for Natural Resources Usage and Ecology of Republic Belarus Academy of Sciences

N. SOURCES OF DATA

  1. Questionnaire filled by Drs. O. F. Iakushko, V. P. Romanov, L. V. Gurianova, S. F. Tumishskaya, A. H. Rachevskij, C. A. Bojkova, V. P. Vlasov, G. S .Gigevich, Z. K. Kartashevich and V. M. Samoilenko, Branch of Scientific-Research Laboratory of Limnology, Belarus State University, Minsk. The following references are all printed in Russian.
  2. Iakushko, O. F. (1981) Limnology, The Geography of Belarus Lakes. 223 pp. Minsk.
  3. Branch Scientific-Research Laboratory of Limnology (1990) Report on Measures for Restoration of the Lake Chervonoje Ecosystem (Zhitkovichskij District, Belarus). Minsk.
  4. Belarus Board of Hydrometeorology and Control of Environment (1991) Statistical Data for 1925 1989. Minsk.